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ASF – 进一步了解抗病毒手段

时间:2019-08-30 09:41来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:


随着中国大规模爆发非洲猪瘟疫情,并且进一步蔓延至越南等亚洲国家,非洲猪瘟(ASF)正威胁着全球养猪业。虽然饲料添加剂不能解决ASF出现的问题,但它们是改善动物免疫状态的有用工具。

With the major outbreak in China and further spread to other Asian countries like Vietnam, African Swine Fever (ASF) is seriously threatening the global pig industry. Although feed additives will not solve the emerging problems with ASF, they are a useful tool to improve the immune status of the animal.

 

ASF这种高度传染性的病毒性疾病,已经导致数百万头猪的死亡扑杀。结果,股市萎缩,猪肉价格上涨。母猪数量的减少将导致未来的供应问题。动物健康专家预计这种疾病会进一步蔓延。病毒在环境中长期潜伏,疫情难以控制。

The highly contagious viral disease, ASF, has already caused the death and culling of millions of pigs. As a result, stocks are shrinking and pork prices are rising. The decreasing sow population will cause future supply problems. Animal health experts expect the disease to rapidly spread further. The fact that the virus remains latent in the environment for a long time, makes the outbreak hard to control.

 

此外,非洲猪瘟病毒能够通过复杂多样的途径传播;通过受感染的家猪和野猪、病死猪、厨余垃圾和受污染的车辆或设备传播。在亚洲,后院养殖、泔水喂猪和生物安全性差在病毒传播方面也发挥了重要的作用。

Moreover, the ASF virus is able to spread through complex and varied means; via infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, contaminated carcasses, food waste and contaminated vehicles or equipment . In Asia, backyard farming, swill feeding and poor biosecurity also play a significant role.

 

抗病毒药物的机会

 

病毒很难用药物治疗。这是由于病毒通过利用宿主细胞物质和结构进行增殖。由于突变和快速的生命周期,导致了它们的变异性强。其中一些病毒,如ASFPRRS病毒,被一层几乎与宿主细胞膜相同的脂肪膜覆盖,使得它们很难被识别。

Viruses are difficult to fight with medication. This is due to the fact that viruses are multiplied by the host cells using their machinery. They are also highly variable due to mutations and a rapid lifecycle. Some of them, like the ASF and PRRS virus, are covered with a fat-envelope, which is almost identical to the membranes of the host cells, making them hard to target.

 

由于这些限制,预防仍然是防止病毒传播的最佳方法。但在过去的几十年里,研究在抗病毒手段的领域提供了许多新的见解,这给防止病毒传播提供了新的希望。针对动物和人类的各种病毒,例如艾滋病毒和肝炎,开发出了有效的疫苗。虽然抗ASF的疫苗还没有上市,但试验性疫苗看起来很有前景。此外,在饲料添加剂领域,进一步了解一些最新的发展情况是很有趣的。

Because of these limitations, prevention of contamination still is the best way to prevent the spread of viruses. But there is hope. The last decades, research has provided many new insights in the field of antiviral means. Effective vaccines were developed against various viruses in both animals and humans, like HIV and hepatitis, for example). Although a vaccine against ASF is not yet commercially available, experimental vaccines look promising. Also in the field of feed additives, it is interesting to take a closer look at some recent developments.

 

直接攻击: α-单脂肪酸甘油酯,尤其是α-月桂酸甘油酯(C12),除了其广为人知的抗菌作用外,还具有抗病毒特性,特别是对囊膜病毒。他们被发现影响病毒包膜,导致其泄漏,在更高浓度下,包膜和病毒颗粒会完全解体。这些 α-单脂肪酸甘油酯是一种特殊的分子,其中脂肪酸与甘油分子的第一个碳(通常称为α)相连。科学文献表明,与相应的游离脂肪酸相比,α-单脂肪酸甘油酯(如α-月桂酸甘油酯)的作用更强。

Direct attack: Next to their well-documented antibacterial effects, alpha-monoglycerides, and especially alpha-monolaurin (C12), also possess antiviral properties, especially against fat-enveloped viruses. They are found to affect the viral envelope, causing leakage and, at higher concentrations, a complete disintegration of the envelope and the viral particles. These alpha-monoglycerides are specific molecules in which a fatty acid is attached to the first, usually called alpha, carbon of a glycerol molecule. Scientific literature suggests that the effect of alpha-monoglycerides, like alpha-monolaurin, is much stronger compared to the corresponding free fatty acids.

 

淋巴转运:淋巴系统是B淋巴细胞和T淋巴细胞的主要系统转运途径。因此,免疫调节化合物通过淋巴途径吸收时可能更有效。α-月桂酸甘油酯被认为是一种免疫调节化合物。在SigaletMartin1999)对大鼠的研究中,通过淋巴管吸收的月桂酸量大约是通过门静脉吸收的4倍。因此,月桂酸优先通过淋巴系统转运。Framelco有很强的迹象表明,月桂酸的单脂肪酸甘油酯也同样适用,因为在用α-月桂酸甘油酯处理的猪的血液样本中发现α-月桂酸甘油酯。如果α-月桂酸甘油酯通过肝门静脉,肝脏会直接分解α-月桂酸甘油酯,在血液中不可能找到补充的α-月桂酸甘油酯。

Lymphatic transport: The lymphatic system is the principle systemic transport pathway for B and T lymphocytes. As such it has been suggested that immunomodulatory compounds may be more effective when absorbed via the lymphatic route. Alpha- monolaurin is thought to be such an immunomodulatory compound. In a study of Sigalet and Martin (1999), conducted with rats, the amount of lauric acid absorbed via the lymphatics was approximately 4 times higher compared to the absorption via the portal vein. Hence, lauric acid is preferentially transported via the lymphatic system. Framelco has strong indications that the same applies for the monoglyceride of lauric acid, as alpha-monolaurin was found in blood samples of pigs treated with alpha-monolaurin. If the alpha-monolaurin would go via the hepatic portal vein, the liver would have broken down alpha-monolaurin directly and it would not be possible to find the supplemented alpha-monolaurin in the blood.

 

 

抗炎作用:如果致病性压力高,则需要适当的免疫反应。然而,在小挑战的情况下,应避免过度反应,以节省能量用于生长。抗炎化合物有助于减少促炎过程的负面影响。在比利时鲁汶大学,Framelco检测了α-月桂酸甘油酯以及α-辛酸甘油酯(C8)和α-葵酸甘油酯(C10)的组合物的抗炎特性。两种产品在体外均显示巨噬细胞样细胞的一氧化氮(NO)生成明显减少,表明具有抗炎作用(见图1)。此外,在文献中还证明了,在实验中α-月桂酸甘油酯对感染实验动物细胞因子水平的影响。人们认为α-月桂酸甘油酯对宿主炎症反应具有调节作用,并支持消除感染。

Anti-inflammatory effects: If pathogenic pressure is high, a proper immune response is desirable. However, in case of small challenges an overreaction should be avoided in order to save energy for growth. Anti-inflammatory compounds could help reduce the negative impact of pro-inflammatory processes. At the Belgium University KU Leuven, the anti-inflammatory properties of alpha-monolaurin and a combination of alpha-monocaprylin (C8) and alpha-monocaprin(C10) were tested by Framelco. Both products showed a clear reduction of the nitric oxide (NO) production of macrophage-like cells in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect (see Figure 1). Also in literature the effect of alpha-monolaurin on the cytokine levels in experimentally infected laboratory animals have been demonstrated. It is believed that alpha-monolaurin has a modulatory impact on the host inflammatory responses and that it supports the elimination of infections.

 

1 α-月桂酸甘油酯,α-辛酸甘油酯和α-葵酸甘油酯的组合以及OTC(土霉素,对照)对LPS诱导的巨噬细胞生成一氧化氮(NO)的影响。

Figure 1 - Effect of alpha-monolaurin, a combination of alpha-monocaprylin and alpha-monocaprin and OTC (oxytetracyclin, control) on nitrogen oxide (NO) production by LPS challenged macrophage-like cells.

 

 

提高疫苗接种策略:最近在一所著名的巴基斯坦大学发现了一种新的显著的α-月桂酸甘油酯作用。结果可能涉及到疫苗接种计划的改进效果和在接受α-月桂酸甘油酯(Fra c12 Framelco液体)时能更好地预防病毒。图2显示,对抗新城疫(A)和传染性支气管炎(B)的病毒的抗体含量最高的是α-月桂酸甘油酯(D组)。然而,需要更多的工作来研究这背后的精确工作机制。

Boost your vaccination strategy: A new remarkable effect of alpha-monolaurin was recently discovered at a renowned Pakistani university. Results might implicate an improved efficacy of the vaccination programme and a better protection against the viruses when receiving alpha-monolaurin (FRA C12 Liquid of Framelco). Figure 2 shows that the highest amount of antibodies against viruses causing Newcastle Disease (a) and Infectious Bronchitis (b) was found in the group with the highest dose level of alpha-monolaurin (group D). However, more research is needed to investigate the precise working mechanisms behind this.

 

2- A组用血凝抑制试验(HI)测定鸡新城疫抗体滴度(ND,3a)及ELISA法测定传染性支气管炎的抗体滴度(IB,3b)(阳性对照);B组(阴性对照)、C组(FRA C121kg/1000L)和D组(FRA C12 2kg/1000L

Figure 2 - Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) titre against Newcastle Disease (ND, 3a) and ELISA titre level against Infectious Bronchitis (IB, 3b) of broilers of group A (positive control), B (negative control), C (FRA C12 Liquid 1kg/1000L) and D (FRA C12 Liquid 2kg/1000L).

 

 

 α-月桂酸甘油酯的作用

 

基于对抗病毒性疾病的α-月桂酸甘油酯的产品越来越受到欢迎。这主要是由于α-月桂酸甘油酯具有独特分子结构,对动物免疫反应的具有积极作用,从而降低继发性细菌感染的风险,减少感染对生长性能的负面影响。将进行更多的研究,以了解α-月桂酸甘油酯如何在病毒挑战的情况下支持动物的,重点是分子的免疫调节特性。

Products based on alpha-monolaurin, are gaining popularity against viral diseases. This is mainly due to the positive effects of alpha-monolaurin, with its unique molecular structure, on the animal’s immune response, thereby reducing the risks of secondary bacterial infections and reducing the negative impact of infections on growth performance. More research will be conducted to understand how alpha-monolaurin is able to support the animal in case of viral challenges, focussing on immunomodulatory properties of the molecule.

 

来源:piglet网站


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